ABSTRACT of timeinformation security becoming important in data

ABSTRACT

Cryptography is  science and an ancient art.cryptograhy is
used to secure information which is highly confidential.cryptography is used to
secure information by changing it into non readable form.it is used from thousand
of year.with passage of timeinformation security becoming important in data
storage.its history start from 1980 but it was not popular because people don’t
have information about it but in 1989 when www was invented it gain
popularity.and with passade of time it become the essential part of the
information security.now study about the ancient method of cryptography and
about its future enhancement.

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INTRODUCTION

Cipher Security in very important in data transferring.data transfer is a
process in which we transfer data from one location to another location and
from one host to another host.today internet gain value for exchange of data
therefor demand is increasing day by day for searching a solutrion which can
protect their data from thieves attacks.during data transfer system try his
best that no external party can change the data.so to minimize this situation
system converts its data into a non readable form in the time when its sents
from sending side and when data reaches its destination system convert data
again into its original form. There are many method  which is used to for security of the data

techniques  which is used for deciphering a message
without its  knowledge of the enciphering
details is called cryptanalysis Cryptography

1.It is
the art and science of protecting information from undesirable individuals by
converting it into a form non-recognizable by its attackers while stored and
transmitted

Encryption

It is the element of
cryptography it uses a key or a parameter 
for data transformation.some message trequired the same length of key
which is equall to the message which is encoded ut in the same way some other
encryption algorithm uses the smaller key for encoded message.when message
received on receiver side Decryption of the data occur which iresult in orginal
message.it is used in modern time.for example 
automatic teller machine used this method.this also permit message to be
authenticated by creating digital signature this is very useful when sensitive
email are sent for communication.

                                                                                          

 

20 cipher
is any method of encrypting text (concealing its readability and meaning). It
is also sometimes used to refer to the encrypted text message itself although
here the term ciphertext is preferred.

 

Decryption

 Torestore the original information from
theencrypted form.

Plaintext

 The data in its original form is called plain
text

Ciphertext

 The data which is
encrypted is called ciphertext.

Cryptanalysis  The.

Cryptology-  The areas of
cryptography and cryptanalysis are called cryptology.

 

Historical Cryptography

Ancient Egypt

 

The
ancient of cryptography is from Egyption.Nearly 4000 years agoon the tomb of
nobleman Khnumhotep.He used unusuall symbol for information hiding.this method
replace  by cipher in modern age.with the
passage of time Egyption culture evolved 
it become more common.there are many theory about why Egyption used
encryption system some people think that they want to hide theire religious
rituals from common people.

Greece

 

In
about 500 B.C. the Spartans dev evolved a device called Scytale.this device was
used to send and receive private secret message. The shape of the device was a
cylinder in which a narrow strip of parchment was wound. Length-wise   message was then written on the parchment.
Once it was unwound the message on the strip of parchment became unreadable. On
receiver side to receive message an identical cylinder was needed. It was only
then that the letters would line up resulting in the original message.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                   

 

 

 

Rome

 

The
earliest military use of cryptography comes from Julius Caesar 2,000 years ago.
Caesar, being commander of the Roman army, solved the problem of secure
communication with his troops.

 

Caesar
developed a substitution ciprmethod in which he 
substitute letters from different letters. Only those who knew the
substitution used could decipher the secret messages. Now when the messengers
were overtaken the secret messages were not exposed. This gave the Ro man army
a huge advantage during war.

 

 

 

 

REFRENCES

20
http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/cipher

 

Jefferson Wheel Cipher

In
the late 1700’s, Thomas Jefferson give  a
cipher system which was  similar to the
Vigenere Cipher except that its security was high. He invented a machine which
has 26 wheels and on each wheel alphabets were randomly scattered. The wheels
were numbered and ordered with a specified order. This order is the key to the
encryption algorithm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modern Encryption

The “one-time pad” encryption algorithm which
was invented in  early 1900’s, andi  has been proven as unbreakable. The one-time
pad algorithm is derived from a previous cipher called Vernam Cipher. One-time
pad called unbrokeable because of two reason first is that the key which is
used is completely random and second is that it is implemented by using modular
addition of XOR which is used to combine plain text with key elements.

 An example of this is shown in Figure 11. The
key used for encryption is also used for decryption. Applying the same key to
the ciphertext results back to the plaintext.

                                                                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Future Methods of Encryption

Elliptic Curve Cryptography

 

Elliptic
Curve Cryptography has been already  technically
invented but it is not til now  considered  a future technique of cryptography and reason
behind this is its benefits  and
disadvantages are not fully understood.  Elliptic
Curve Cryptography  is an approach of
encryption that utilizes the complex nature of elliptic curves in finite
fields. ECC algorithms  are same like  Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and RSA
Encryption. It has only only  difference that
is the numbers are chosen from a finite field which are  defined with an elliptic curve expression.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quantum Computation

 

Quantum
computation is used in a quantum computer or processor. Modern computers use a
binary system to store data which is known as 
binary format in which only o and 1 can be stored.Bit by bit method is
used in modern computers for computation. Quantum computers use multiple state
of quantam super positionfor  storing
data. After that  these states are stored
in quantum bits or qubits. simultaneously each qubit can store a set number
values which is depend on  the design of
quantam.

 

Conclusion

 

There
has been a historical pattern that shows the country with the strongest
encryption has been a leader in military power. By studying cryptography and
encryption, a country could strengthen its defenses and have the necessary
means to survive in a hostile world. An understanding of encryption can also
help individuals with securing private data and information. Even though it is
severely unethical, our communication with one another is constantly being
monitored. Those who monitor our communication can include governments,
internet service providers, hackers, identity thieves, and more. By learning to
use cryptography for secure communication, we can safe guard ourselves from
being compromised by those who could steal our information. Cryptography is illegal
in many countries because the local government wishes to be able to read any
transmission sent. Many people speculate that the United States does not need
these laws because the NSA has developed methods of cryptanalysis that break
all encryption methods currently known.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 ABSTRACT

Cryptography is  science and an ancient art.cryptograhy is
used to secure information which is highly confidential.cryptography is used to
secure information by changing it into non readable form.it is used from thousand
of year.with passage of timeinformation security becoming important in data
storage.its history start from 1980 but it was not popular because people don’t
have information about it but in 1989 when www was invented it gain
popularity.and with passade of time it become the essential part of the
information security.now study about the ancient method of cryptography and
about its future enhancement.

 

INTRODUCTION

Cipher Security in very important in data transferring.data transfer is a
process in which we transfer data from one location to another location and
from one host to another host.today internet gain value for exchange of data
therefor demand is increasing day by day for searching a solutrion which can
protect their data from thieves attacks.during data transfer system try his
best that no external party can change the data.so to minimize this situation
system converts its data into a non readable form in the time when its sents
from sending side and when data reaches its destination system convert data
again into its original form. There are many method  which is used to for security of the data

techniques  which is used for deciphering a message
without its  knowledge of the enciphering
details is called cryptanalysis Cryptography

1.It is
the art and science of protecting information from undesirable individuals by
converting it into a form non-recognizable by its attackers while stored and
transmitted

Encryption

It is the element of
cryptography it uses a key or a parameter 
for data transformation.some message trequired the same length of key
which is equall to the message which is encoded ut in the same way some other
encryption algorithm uses the smaller key for encoded message.when message
received on receiver side Decryption of the data occur which iresult in orginal
message.it is used in modern time.for example 
automatic teller machine used this method.this also permit message to be
authenticated by creating digital signature this is very useful when sensitive
email are sent for communication.

                                                                                          

 

20 cipher
is any method of encrypting text (concealing its readability and meaning). It
is also sometimes used to refer to the encrypted text message itself although
here the term ciphertext is preferred.

 

Decryption

 Torestore the original information from
theencrypted form.

Plaintext

 The data in its original form is called plain
text

Ciphertext

 The data which is
encrypted is called ciphertext.

Cryptanalysis  The.

Cryptology-  The areas of
cryptography and cryptanalysis are called cryptology.

 

Historical Cryptography

Ancient Egypt

 

The
ancient of cryptography is from Egyption.Nearly 4000 years agoon the tomb of
nobleman Khnumhotep.He used unusuall symbol for information hiding.this method
replace  by cipher in modern age.with the
passage of time Egyption culture evolved 
it become more common.there are many theory about why Egyption used
encryption system some people think that they want to hide theire religious
rituals from common people.

Greece

 

In
about 500 B.C. the Spartans dev evolved a device called Scytale.this device was
used to send and receive private secret message. The shape of the device was a
cylinder in which a narrow strip of parchment was wound. Length-wise   message was then written on the parchment.
Once it was unwound the message on the strip of parchment became unreadable. On
receiver side to receive message an identical cylinder was needed. It was only
then that the letters would line up resulting in the original message.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                   

 

 

 

Rome

 

The
earliest military use of cryptography comes from Julius Caesar 2,000 years ago.
Caesar, being commander of the Roman army, solved the problem of secure
communication with his troops.

 

Caesar
developed a substitution ciprmethod in which he 
substitute letters from different letters. Only those who knew the
substitution used could decipher the secret messages. Now when the messengers
were overtaken the secret messages were not exposed. This gave the Ro man army
a huge advantage during war.

 

 

 

 

REFRENCES

20
http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/cipher

 

Jefferson Wheel Cipher

In
the late 1700’s, Thomas Jefferson give  a
cipher system which was  similar to the
Vigenere Cipher except that its security was high. He invented a machine which
has 26 wheels and on each wheel alphabets were randomly scattered. The wheels
were numbered and ordered with a specified order. This order is the key to the
encryption algorithm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modern Encryption

The “one-time pad” encryption algorithm which
was invented in  early 1900’s, andi  has been proven as unbreakable. The one-time
pad algorithm is derived from a previous cipher called Vernam Cipher. One-time
pad called unbrokeable because of two reason first is that the key which is
used is completely random and second is that it is implemented by using modular
addition of XOR which is used to combine plain text with key elements.

 An example of this is shown in Figure 11. The
key used for encryption is also used for decryption. Applying the same key to
the ciphertext results back to the plaintext.

                                                                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Future Methods of Encryption

Elliptic Curve Cryptography

 

Elliptic
Curve Cryptography has been already  technically
invented but it is not til now  considered  a future technique of cryptography and reason
behind this is its benefits  and
disadvantages are not fully understood.  Elliptic
Curve Cryptography  is an approach of
encryption that utilizes the complex nature of elliptic curves in finite
fields. ECC algorithms  are same like  Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and RSA
Encryption. It has only only  difference that
is the numbers are chosen from a finite field which are  defined with an elliptic curve expression.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quantum Computation

 

Quantum
computation is used in a quantum computer or processor. Modern computers use a
binary system to store data which is known as 
binary format in which only o and 1 can be stored.Bit by bit method is
used in modern computers for computation. Quantum computers use multiple state
of quantam super positionfor  storing
data. After that  these states are stored
in quantum bits or qubits. simultaneously each qubit can store a set number
values which is depend on  the design of
quantam.

 

Conclusion

 

There
has been a historical pattern that shows the country with the strongest
encryption has been a leader in military power. By studying cryptography and
encryption, a country could strengthen its defenses and have the necessary
means to survive in a hostile world. An understanding of encryption can also
help individuals with securing private data and information. Even though it is
severely unethical, our communication with one another is constantly being
monitored. Those who monitor our communication can include governments,
internet service providers, hackers, identity thieves, and more. By learning to
use cryptography for secure communication, we can safe guard ourselves from
being compromised by those who could steal our information. Cryptography is illegal
in many countries because the local government wishes to be able to read any
transmission sent. Many people speculate that the United States does not need
these laws because the NSA has developed methods of cryptanalysis that break
all encryption methods currently known.