ABSTRACT Escherichia coli and 27.4 mm for Staphylococcus

                                                         
ABSTRACT

         Textiles are indispensable part of
human life. Now a days; textile finishes not only enhance the feel and drape of
fabrics but can also provide extraordinary hygienic properties like making it
antimicrobial in nature. Nature has been
a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of
modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources. To enhance the
efficiency of biological, and chemical properties of cotton fabrics by
finishing with herbal extract nanocomposites. With an objective to increase
efficiency of the functional properties, Memecylon
malabaricum herbal extract nanocomposites were finished on to the
cotton fabric (nanocomposite finishing). Various functional properties were
analyzed and Antibacterial activity was carried out for before and after washed
samples using standard EN ISO 20645 method and a standard AATCC – 147 test
method respectively. Antibacterial activity of nanocomposite finished fabrics
showed more inhibitory zones of 30.3 mm for Escherichia coli and 27.4 mm for Staphylococcus aureus.
Nanocomposite finished fabrics showed good durable properties.

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Keywords: Memecylon malabaricum, Herbal antimicrobial finish,
cotton, nanocomposite.

 

 

 

 

A STUDY ON HERBAL NANOCOMPOSITE FOR DURABLE ANTIBACTERIAL FINISHING ON
COTTON FABRICS

INTRODUCTION

              The world of textile industry is
going through revolutionary changes aimed at the unique
needs of the modern customers. Textile substrates
can be now modified to provide additional functional
requirements apart from providing conversional properties 1
.Functional finishes represent the next generation of finishing industry,
which, make textile materials act by themselves 2. Microorganisms
are part of our daily life. They join us in different forms mostly unnoticed
3. As consumers have become more aware of hygiene and potentially
harmful effects of microbes the demand for antimicrobial finished clothing is
increasing 4.Though chemicals and heavy metal finished fabrics provide good
antimicrobial activity, due to factors like toxicity, and non-biodegradability,
they cannot be used for hygenic applications.Its derivatives as antimicrobial
agents have received more attention to finish antimicrobial textiles. The
herbal extracts like Memecylon
malabaricum were also considered significant for the functional
finishing of textile materials for antibacterial, antifungal and anti odour
properties.

               Even
though reactive exhaust method and microencapsulation method have been used
extensively in textile industries for functional finishing of fabrics, a novel
technique called nanoencapsulation is rapidly emerging and widely used in
pharmaceutical, chemical, cosmetics and food processing industries5 .
Nanoencapsulated drugs after finishing onto the textile materials provides a
slow and controlled release of the active antimicrobial ingredient to achieve
the desired delay until the right stimulus is obtained6 .

                 Considering the significant
characteristics of this technique, in our present research, herbal extract
nanoparticles were prepared and were functionally finished on the cotton
fabrics. To find out the efficiency of nanocomposite finished cotton fabrics,
the parameters like antibacterial activity and wash durability  were evaluated.

MATERIALS
AND METHODOLOGY

 

2.1 FABRIC PARTICULARS AND SELECTION
OF HERBS

             Plain weave cotton Fabric is
selected with 40s yarn count, 60 ends per inch (EPI) and 56 picks per inch
(PPI).Medicinal plant, Memecylon malabaricum
were collected from different region in and around Erode district, Tamil Nadu.
Leaves of the plants were used in the study.

2.2
SELECTION OF BACTERIA CULTURE:

   
The following microbes were selected for this study according to the
ENISO 20645 standard.

  Test organisms – Escherichia coli ATCC 11229  
and   Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538                                        

2.3 EXTRACTION
OF HERBS       

   The
separated herbal parts were shadow dried and powdered by using dry grinding
machine. The herbal powders were stored in a dry container for further studies.
The extraction process was done in three stages, such as drying, grinding and
extraction.

2.4 PREPARATION OF
ANTIBACTERIAL NANOPARTICLES

                      Herbal extract nanoparticles were prepared by
coacervation process by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. In this method, the
herbal extract was incubated with bovine serum albumin (wall material – 2% w/v)
for one hour at room temperature. Using 1M HCl pH was adjusted to 5.5. Ethanol
was added to the solution in the ratio of 2:1 (v/v) at the rate of 1ml/min.
Coacervate thus formed was hardened with 25% glutaraldehyde for 2 hours to
allow cross-linking of protein. Organic solvents were removed by rotary vacuum
evaporator and resultant nanocapsules were purified by centrifugation at 4 °C
at 10,000 rpm. Pellets were suspended in 0.1M PBS (pH 7.4) and lyophilized with
mannitol (2% w/v).

2.5
NANOCOMPOSITE FINISHING OF COTTON FABRICS

                Cotton fabric sample were treated with herbal
nanoparticles (nanocomposite finishing). All the samples were padded with 8%
citric acid in a padding mangle at a pressure of 3 psi with 100% wet pickup
followed by drying and curing at 160°C for 5 min.

2.6
ANTIBACTERIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FINISHED FABRIC

2.6.1  (EN ISO 20645 TEST METHOD)

                  The antibacterial activity of
finished fabric was tested according to EN ISO 20645 against the test bacterial
cultures, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The finished
cotton fabric with the diameter of 20 ± 1 mm was placed on the surface of
Nutrient agar medium which was swabbed with the bacterial cultures. The plates
were incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours to measure the zone of inhibition in
millimeters formed around the fabric.

2.7
WASH DURABILITY OF FINISHED FABRIC (AATCC – 124 TEST METHOD)

                     Nancomposite finished cotton fabrics
were analyzed for their wash durability by subjecting the sample to repeated
washing and antibacterial testing using the standard AATCC-124 and AATCC – 147
test methods (Parallel streak method). All the samples were washed and its
antibacterial activity was analyzed after 1st, 5th and 10th wash.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

              
In the present study, nanocomposite finished cotton fabrics were
analyzed to determine their efficiency of biologicall properties. Antibacterial
activity and the durable properties of the nanocomposite finished cotton
fabrics were analyzed

3.1
ANTIBACTERIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FINISHED FABRIC BY EN ISO 20645

                Finished cotton fabric was
assessed for their antibacterial activity by EN ISO 20645 against test
bacterial cultures. The zone of inhibition of fabric treated with
nanocomposites showed more inhibitory. Nanocomposite finished fabric inhibited
the organisms with the zones of 30.3 mm for E. coli and 27.4 mm for S.
aureus (Figure-1). The measured zone of inhibition thus indicated that
nanocomposites not only prevented the growth under the fabric also it
constantly leached out from the material by restricting the growth of organisms
to a greater extent.                      

                        FIG 1.  ANTIBACTERIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE NANOCOMPOSITE
FINISHED FABRIC

3.2
WASH DURABILITY OF FINISHED FABRICS (AATCC – 124 TEST METHOD)

                     Durability was tested
based on their antibacterial activity using standard Parallel streak method
(AATCC – 147 test methods). The nanocomposite finished sample provided more
inhibitory zones. After 10th wash, the inhibitory zone of 26.3 mm and 26.9 mm
was reported for E. coli and S. Aureus (figures-2). This showed
that the nanocomposite fabric was able to retain the antibacterial activity
even after 5 to 10 industrial washes, thereby providing long term durability of
the nanocomposite finished fabric.

                            

 

                                                     FIG 2. WASH DURABILITY OF
NANOCOMPOSITE FABRIC                     

TABLE
1. ANTIBACTERIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FINISHED FABRIC BY EN ISO 20645

Test Culture

Zone of
inhibition (mm)

Escherichia coli#

Staphylococcus aureus#

Unfinished
cotton

0

0

Nanocomposite
finished cotton*

30.3

27.4

             * Values in mm was measured
including the diameter size of the fabric (20 mm)

             # Mean values were tabulated after
performing three times for each test culture

TABLE
2. WASH DURABILITY OF FINISHED FABRIC BY AATCC – 124 TEST METHOD

Test Culture

Zone of
inhibition (mm) after washes (in numbers)

Escherichia coli#

Staphylococcus aureus#

1st

5th

10th

1st

5th

10th

Unfinished
cotton

25#

25#

25#

25#

25#

25#

Nanocomposite
finished cotton*

29.9

28.7

27.9

26.8

25.9

25.1

               # No inhibitory zone was
observed (value given is the actual diameter of the fabric)             

 

4.0 CONCLUSION

                   The society move towards hygienic, less toxic,
ecofriendly products which has increased the demand for anti-microbial textiles
that is effective and safe for humans.  In the present study, the advantages of
functionally finished Ecofriendly herbal nanoparticles on cotton were well
determined based on the biological and chemical properties. The nano size of
extracts increases the durability and antibacterial activity of finished fabric
to a greater extend. Also, no change in  properties of nanoparticle finished cotton
could also influence its wide applications in hygienic aspects in providing
suitable comfort properties.

REFERENCE:

1. Sudha, S., Dev, G.V.R. and Neelakandan, R. (2006),
Plasma application in textiles – an overview, Journal of the Textile
Association, Vol.67, No.1, May-June, Page no-25.

2. Menezes E. and chezhian, (2007), functional
textiles and apparels, volume – II, PEE vee publishers, coimbatore, Page
no.27-33.

3.  Hipler, V.C.
(2006), Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin, Kerger Publications, P.179.

4. Thilagavathi G and
Kannaian T. Application of Prickly chaff (Memecylon malabaricum
Linn.) leaves as herbal antimicrobial finish for cotton fabric used in
healthcare textiles. Natural Product
Radiance. 2008; page no: 330-334.

5.
Wang X. Chitosan-metal complexes as antimicrobial agent: Synthesis,
characterization and Structure-activity study. Polymer Bulletin-2005; 55: 105-113

6. Nataporn S, Tawatchai C
and Wiwuthanthapanichakoon. Nanoencapsulation of curcumin in biodegradable
chitosan via multiple emulsion/solvent evaporation. Thailand Material Science and Technology Conference. 2006.