Abstract: advertisements endorsed by multiple celebrity endorsed advertise.


The Study of this subject is
mainly done to find out the comparative effectiveness of Single Celebrity
endorsed Advertisement and multiple Celebrity endorsed Advertisement which is
influencing the perception of buyer/consumers (i.e. attitude towards advertisement,
attitude towards celebrity and attitude towards advertised product).

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Further, the Study is done for
the Same Product and for the low involvement Product especially Soft drinks. Since this research falls quantitative
research category which is aimed at discoverving inferences of casual
relationships, hence we are using descriptive research methodology for the same

In this Study, Low involvement
Product Category is considered and two type of endorsed Advertisements (Single
Celebrity and Multiple Celebrity) are used and the study is done on 50
Consumers. The print advertisements which is created are used as stimuli. This
study suggest that for low-involvement product category specifically Soft drink
especially in case of TV media, advertisements endorsed by single celebrities
has more favorable/positive impact in influencing the Perception of
consumers  as compared to advertisements
endorsed by multiple celebrity endorsed advertise.

Limitation of the study is that
it is restricted/confined to the selected area of Maharashtra ( MBA student at
Symbiosis Infotech Campus) and therefore the findings may or may not be
generalized to the other cities or states of the country. A major implication
from the findings for the brand managers or advertising agencies is that as the
it is not necessary that if the number of celebrities increases in the
advertisement, the impact of advertisement in creating positive attitude towards
advertisement increases. It could be vice a versa as per the product/brand. Also
the consumer/buyer’s intention to purchase or the advertised product and the
consumer’s perception towards celebrity’s credibility, reliability, popularity,
trustworthiness, attractiveness. The expertise increases for the
low-involvement Product like Soft drinks especially in case of TV media. This
study will help to address an issues related with area that has not been very
well researched yet, and in addressing a research question that has not been
investigated properly.

Introduction :

1.       A
celebrity endorser is “an individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses
this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an
advertisement” (McCracken, 1989).

2.       Friedman
and Friedman state that “a celebrity endorser is an individual who is known to
the public for his or her achievement in areas others than of the product class
endorsed” (Friedman & Friedman, 1979).

3.       Celebrity
Endorsement is a very popular method for advertising the products. Product
popularity can be increased by linking it to someone who is already popular
i.e. Celebrity.


Endorsement does not only introduces product  and make it popular but it also helps to break
through the clutter. At this point one can easily say that anyone alive today,
living in the western world, has encountered some form of celebrity endorsing.
Celebrity endorsing has reportedly been around since the 1920’s, first using
radio and later in the 1950’s using television as media tool. Hollywood movie
stars were often used for commercials promoting products ranging from pies to
cigarettes. Besides movie stars, sport stars were also used in commercials. An
Indian family used to read various newspapers and magazines which includes several
advertisements for various products and thus a consumer is exposed to around
1000 ads per day. Moreover, people forget 80% of the information in just 24
hours. All these things lead to high amount of clutter.

The situation is
even worse for the low involvement product categories in which differentiation
is very little. To defeat the clutter of all the brands one of the most
prominent solution is ‘Celebrity Endorsement’ for the brand. This is because in
low involvement categories consumers neither have the time nor the desire to
comprehensively investigate and assess all the offerings available to them. As
a result in such categories consumers often make purchase decisions on the
basis of in store factors and extrinsic cues like endorsement of product by
well-known person, innovative packaging etc. Now a days a new trend in the
arena of the celebrity endorsement has aroused and that is of using multiple
celebrities for endorsing the same product only.

There is very
limited literature available which had evaluated impact of single vs. multiple
celebrity for the same product. Today, an Indian family used to watch various
daily-soaps and series per day. Moreover, each TV channel has included various
advertisements for different products. So, and they are exposed to around 1000
ads per day. The media-explosion can thus be easily demonstrated. Since,
Television media is being considered as such a popular media in India through
which one can reach large number of people at the same time, marketers usually
tend to choose Television media for their advertisements so as to aware more
number of people about their products simultaneously. Now a days, internet is
everything for young crowd and marketer started using this celebrity endorsed
advertisements on popular social media like Facebook, Youtube and Instagram
too. This is making an impact on young people.

Hence taking
into consideration the above things the present study is undertaken to evaluate
the impact of Single Celebrity endorsement as well as Multiple Celebrity
endorsement and especially for TV media

The Study
involves mainly Low-involvement product. The reasons for using low-involvement
product areas under. Since low-Involvement Products are the products that have
very little differentiation in the same category. Advertisements play a very
important role in influencing the buying behaviour/perception of consumers.
Low-involvement products are the products that consumers purchase it frequently
and since low-involvement products are low-cost products, consumers’ purchase
decision do not involve any comprehensive process and consumer often make
purchase decision on the basis of advertisements and in-store cues and
extrinsic cues like endorsement of product by celebrity.The advertising
endorsement has witnessed several transformations in the last decades.
Celebrity the endorsers are used in about 25 percent of all TV ads to promote
brands (Erdogan, 2001). About 60 percent of advertising

Spending on
India consists of celebrity endorsements (Saxena, 2008). However, it is
believed that celebrities have a positive impact on financial returns for the
companies that use the(Endorgan, 2001).A celebrity endorser is defined as
“any person who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition when
they appear in the ad in front of consumers “and who often have such
distinctive attributes as attractiveness and reliability (McCracken, 1989;Silvera  Austad, 2004). Celebrities as movie actors,TV
stars and prominent athletes are widely used in television advertising (Shimp,
2003). Celebrity the endorsement is considered an effective promotional toolby
sellers around the world because it influences the perception quality and
exclusivity of the product (Dean, 2001), advertising effectiveness, brand
recognition, brand recall, purchase intentions and even buying behavior
compared to without celebrities (Cooper, 1984; Mathur & Rangan,1997;
Goldsmith, Lafferty and Newell, 2000).Multiple celebrity is defined as the use
of two or more celebrities in an advertising campaign (Hsu and McDonald

2002). Many
researchers found that multiple celebrities endorsements can be advantageous to
appeal to several target audiences, to reduce boredom, to boost advertisement
and brand image, so the intention to purchase consumers can increase (Erdogan
Z. B., 1999; Hsu &

McDonald, 2002;
Saleem, 2007). There has been a lot of research on celebrities

support, but
there is a lack of divergent researchin the contrast between individual and
multiple celebrities support in advertising. Pragmatic evidence with respect to
how a consumer reacts to multiple celebrities in advertising, often missing,
leaving a space in an important research area. This investigation is carried
out to get an opinion among Indian consumers about support of multiple celebrities
versus individual celebrity approval.



1) To determine
the relative effectiveness of Single celebrity endorsed advertisements and
multiple celebrity endorsed advertisements for low-involvement product on
consumers’ attitude towards advertisement.

2) To analyze
the comparative influence of Single celebrity endorsed advertisements and
multiple celebrity endorsed advertisements for low-involvement product on
consumers’ purchase intention for the advertised product.




The support of
celebrities Research indicates that celebrity endorsements may result in more
favorable advertising ratings and product evaluations (Cooper, 1984, Dean and
Biswas, 2001) and

with celebrity figures consistently produce a more favorable impact than that
of the non-famous Advertisements (Atkins and Block, 1983). Companies You can
choose celebrities as endorsers to increase your competitive advantage mainly
for three main reasons: launch, reinforcement and repositioning (Pringle,
2004). In addition, many researchers indicated and revealed that the superficial
image of celebrity sponsors had a affirmative impact on product purchase
behavior (Ohanian,1991; Mathur.L.K. And Rangan, 1997; Goldsmith and
others,2000).Above all, celebrity endorsements are used to create a distinctive
impact and for better communicative effectiveness in the transmission of the message
to the consumer (Sherman,1985). This helps raise awareness about the brand.(Seno,
D. and Lukas, B. A. 2007). In addition to this,

Agrawal and
Kamakura (1995) found that a correct celebrity You can change the perceptions
of incorrectly positioned products. Celebrities are known all over the world
and can give the same state as a product that is being established in a

market (Silvera & Austad, 2004). Nevertheless,the endorsements of
celebrities are being affected by vampires effect, that is, a celebrity,
sometimes eclipses the brand because of the ambition and desire of the celebrity
for the exhibition (Evans, 1998; Kulkarni and Gaulkar, 2005;Erdogan, 1999).
Sometimes, negative publicity about the celebrity affects the endorsement brand
and this could provebe a passive (Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995).

celebrity props

When we have
more than one celebrity in an ad, represents the consensus of all celebrities
to a given product and this multiple consensus will have a great impact on customers
(Kelly, 1967). According to the theory of attribution, this multiple consensus
attracts customers through the development of a positive evaluation of the ad,brand
and product (Hsu and McDonald, 2002). Thus, multiple celebrity endorsements
based on the potential

impact of
consensus information are considered as a good marketing strategy On the other
hand, Erdogan (1999) has warned that many celebrities can confuse consumers about
the identity of the brand and that it must be ensured that

celebrity has compatible meanings”

that are sought
for brands. “Saleem (2007) points out that Multiple celebrities can have a
positive impact on attitude towards advertising and brand and they are also
much more cash for low participation product announcements. Celebrity Attractiveness
and Consumer’s Brand Election behavior Attractiveness was defined in terms of
facial and physical characteristics (Baker and Churchill, 1977; Caballero &
Soloman,1984; Patzer, 1983); was defined later in terms ofthe attractiveness of
the model (Baker and Churchill, 1977; Kahle and Homer, 1985), in terms of
sexual attractiveness (Steadman,1969), or sexuality and responsibility (Maddux
& Rogers,1980). A body of research in advertising and communication identified
physical attractiveness as an important signal

in the initial
judgment of a person of another person (Baker and Churchill, 1977; Chaiken,
1979; Joseph, 1982;Kahle and Homer, 1985). According to McGuire (1985), the
attractive model of the source is more related to the physical attributes such
as similarity, familiarity and sympathy.

Bagozzi et al.
(1979) and Spears & Singh (2004) concisely define purchase intentions as
“the conscience of an individual” plan to make an effort to buy a
brand. “Variableslike considering buying a brand and expecting to buya
brand is decisive to measure the purchase intention(Laroche and others, 1996,
Laroche and Sadokierski, 1994;MacKenzie et al., 1986). Many investigations
indicate that the physical attractiveness of the celebrity spokesperson has a positive
impact on brand image, attitude toward brand and the purchase attempt (Joseph,
1982; Kahle &Homer, 1985; Till et al., 2000), and also became more favorable
since the attractiveness of the endorsing celebrity was

(Kamins, 1990). A) Yes:

 H1.a. The attractiveness of a unique celebrity
will have a positive impact on the consumer’s brand choice behavior.

H2.a. Multiple
celebrities attractive backingIt also has a significant impact on the
consumer’s brand choice behavior.

John Mowen and
Stephen brown3 (1981):- The researchers conducted the study mainly to evaluate
the impact of single verses multiple celebrity endorsers. The study was done on
large mid-western university at Oklahoma. The product considered for the study
was pen. The researchers found from the study that when product is endorsed by
multiple celebrities as compared to single celebrities then the believability
about the advertisement and the endorsed product would be significantly high.

(1989):- McCracken, through his research give the definition of celebrity
Endorser. According to him, a celebrity endorser is an individual who enjoys
public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good
by appearing with it in an advertisement. His research shown that in general
celebrity endorsement influences the feelings of the consumers and can also
influence the attitude consumers have towards the advertisement and attitude
towards the brands, which can increase the purchase intentions and,
consequently, increase sales.


Ian Phau and
Linda Lum5 (2000):- The study was done to investigate whether the physical
attractiveness of endorser has any influence on consumer’s purchase intention
especially for print advertisements. For the purpose of the study, both high
involvement product (Slimming Sheth et. al., Vol.3 (Iss.9): September, 2015
ISSN- 2350-0530(O) ISSN- 2394-3629(P) Impact Factor: 2.035 (I2OR)
Http://www.granthaalayah.com ©International Journal of Research – GRANTHAALAYAH
23-35 programme) & low involvement product (Skincare moisturizer) were
selected. The results of the study shown that the impact of attractive endorser
in influencing the views of audience was more powerful for high involvement
products than for low involvement products.


Chung-kue Hsu
and Daniella McDonald1 (2002):- Celebrity Endorsement Advertising is a
prevailing Advertising technique. Researchers through their research try to
find out that which factors are responsible for making a multiple-celebrity
endorsed advertising a successful one. The study was done on U.S.A. For the
purpose of the study, milk mustache ads were used. It was found from the study
that those ads where celebrity qualities like type, age, and gender, their
intended audiences as well as milk attributes were in congruence/matching, were
effective in influencing the target segment. Thus, the research shows that fit
between the endorsed product and various celebrities is a key factor for using
multiple celebrity endorsers in advertising.


Saleem7 (2007):-
The study evaluated the perpetual difference of young adult toward single
celebrity ads and multiple celebrities’ ads. Questionnaires were administered
on a sample of 300 university students to asses if there is any difference in
young adult perception about single celebrity endorsement and multiple
celebrities’ endorsement. Four print media ads, two containing one celebrity in
them and two containing three and five celebrities in them were used as a
stimulus. The results showed that the attitude toward ad and purchase
intentions are more positive for multiple celebrities ads compare to single
celebrity ads and there is no significant difference in the attitude toward
brand for multiple celebrities ads and single celebrity ads.


Antony Baskaran, Prakash and Balamurugan6 (2012):- The purpose of the study is
to explore the perceptual difference of consumer towards single celebrity
endorsement and multiple celebrity endorsement (more than one celebrity in a
single advertisement) for high and low involvement products and services. Through
the research, it was analysed that the attitudes toward advertisements,
attitude toward brand and purchase intentions are more positive for multiple
celebrities ad which belong to low involvement category while for high
involvement product category attitude toward advertisements, attitude toward
brand and purchase intention showed no significant difference for multiple and
single celebrity advertisements.


Jayswal Rachita,
Nirmal, and Panchal Priya2 (2013):- The study aimed to analyze the impact of
single verses multiple celebrity attractiveness and product match up on
consumers’ brand choice behaviour. Through their research, it was found that
the advertisers while using single celebrity endorsement in their
advertisements should consider both celebrity’s attractiveness and
celebrityproduct congruence as an important factor in influencing consumers’
brand choice behaviour. While, for multiple celebrity endorsement, it was found
from the research that the celebrity’s attractiveness was not significant
factor in influencing consumers’ brand choice behaviour.



The previous
studies undertaken have shown the relative effectiveness of advertisements
endorsed by single Celebrity and advertisements endorsed by multiple celebrities
on buying behaviour of consumers for different product categories (i.e. High
involvement food products, high involvement non-food products, low involvement
food products and low involvement non-food.While the present study shows the
comparative analysis of impact of advertisements endorsed by Single Celebrity
and advertisements endorsed by multiple celebrities on perception of consumers
for low involvement product only.

The previous
studies undertaken have evaluated the relative effectiveness of advertisements
endorsed by single celebrity and advertisements endorsed by multiple
celebrities for different products, while the present study shows the
comparative analysis of impact of advertisements endorsed by Single celebrity
and advertisements endorsed by multiple celebrities on the perception of
consumers for the same product.



· Target population:- Adult
consumers at Symbiosis Infotech Campus.

· Place of Study:- The study
was undertaken in the month  of January  2017 in the city of Pune, Maharashtra, India.

· Type of Research:-
Descriptive research. Since the aim of the study is to examine and analyze the
perceptions, preferences and buying behaviour of consumers  especially with respect to low involvement
product category.

· Research Hypothesis:- The
hypothesis tested using the study are:

H1:- There is a
significant difference between advertisements endorsed by Single celebrity and
advertisements endorsed by multiple celebrities in influencing consumer’s
attitude towards advertisement.

H2:- There is a
significant difference between advertisements endorsed by Single celebrity, and
advertisements endorsed by multiple celebrities in influencing the consumer’s
purchase intention for the advertised product.



· Sampling Plan Ø

Samples and their size:-

a) Consumers:-
50 adult consumers residing at Symbiosis Infotech campus  were considered for the study.

b) Product
Selected for Study:- Low-involvement product Soft drink, specifically  was selected.

with single Celebrity and advertisement with multiple celebrities in it for Soft
drinks were selected in order to know the perception of consumers.

Sampling Method: –

Random sampling method was used
for study.

Sources of Data:- The research study employed both secondary and primary
sources of data. The details are as under

Primary sources of Data:- Online

Secondary sources of Data:-
Youtube , Facebook advertisements, SIC related websites, Leading Magazines and
Newspapers, Company Reports, Research papers, books.