is first of civility that is made a civilization, Civis a member of a free society and CIVITAS in Latin, from where
the city, the citizen… It is, sine qua non, a “articulation of the policy
and the ethics, a urbanity, a live together civilized, a courtesy, an
accomplishment scientific, political, social, and refined artistic, a Kantian
respect for the freedom of others. We take as well the freedom of thought in
the sense that it is opposed to the constraint on the consciences, where,
outside of any external pressure, of the members of the city is erected in the
things of the Religion in guardians of the other, and replacing the arguments by
formulas of pity imposed excellent to banish, through Of the early footprint
exerted on the souls, any review by the reason. As well the religion in the
city must remain a personal freedom and interior, to the detriment of any
there is a human development index, a ranking of countries in terms of
individual freedoms and economic, it is not prohibited to imagine to propose an
index of civilization, to compare the civilizations between them, would be this
only in an intellectual approach perspective, it was at risk. What is a
civilization? It is at the price of the establishment of the criteria which
allow judging that we will be able to
discriminate against those that humanity has been able to create. In order to
propose, in weighing with the balance of justice, what intellectual area, Mediterranean or of the West, which we want to.
On its side, the Act to civilize
returns to pass a community to a social state more evolved (in the moral order,
intellectual, artistic, technical) or considered as such. In a more neutral,
the Civilization includes the whole of social phenomena (religious, moral,
aesthetic, scientific, technical) common to a large corporation or to a group
As well we have a civilization which
has seen the light of day in the Nile valley and Mesopotamia.
For centuries, the Nile River flooded
the valley, enriching the land with a thick layer of alluvial soil. Flooding
occurred from July to September, the result of the tropical rains on the
highlands of Ethiopia. The river reached its maximum level in October, then
began to decrease, is at its minimum between April and June.
Born in the south, in the mountains of Ethiopia, the river
flows into the Mediterranean, to the north, crossing the desert on more than a
thousand kilometers. Every year, in September, inflated by the melting of the
snow of Ethiopia, it comes out of his bed and floods its valley. By
withdrawing, in the month of December, it leaves in the valley a silt very
fertile. It is of the earth wrenched from the highlands of Ethiopia.
The peasants of the valley arrive very quickly to take better
advantage of the floods of the river. Thanks to the silt, they get in a record
time of abundant harvests of cereals. These results are made possible thanks to
a pooling of efforts of all and for the strict rules for the sharing of land
and maintenance of irrigation canals and drainage.
The King of the country (designated under the term of
pharaoh) becomes the guarantor of social order is essential to the management
of floods. He is assisted by many officials and of the scribes selected for
their mastery of the writing. Some archaeologists think that the administrative
needs are at the origin of the Egyptian writing, basis of hieroglyphs
(ideograms), almost a contemporary of the cuneiform of Mesopotamia (or even
During the flood of the river, when it is impossible to work
in the valley, the Peasants put themselves at the service of the royal
administration and build irrigation canals, dikes but also of the temples,
palaces, and tombs. Thus was born the first State of the history.The valley of
the Nile is truly a blessing for Egypt. Without its waters and its fertile
land, the Egyptian civilization would not have emerged.
the amazing growth of Neolithic, which, among other discoveries, sees the
implementation of agriculture and livestock, the Mesopotamia only plays a role
that very late; also, in the whole of a Middle East gloss and rich in its
successive discoveries, fact-IT long figure of poor parent because, during this
first period, techniques acquired did to obtain results in an alluvial plain of
a great fertility only on condition that the water was domesticated and not
more unevenly distributed in time and space.
the man had disciplined the water thanks to channels, the valley of the two
rivers then became a region of prosperity. The existence of great spaces, to
the agricultural possibilities conditioned only by hydraulic structures,
completely alters the conditions of production and led the human communities in
new ways that lead to the birth of an organization of the country in Cités-Etat
and on the invention of the writing. However, this prosperity is based on a
basic only agricultural, and the most ancient human groups installed in the
plain could not survive that thanks to the external relations, sometimes very
distant, in order to obtain the necessary firewood to the habitat and the boats
and furniture, the stones for the tooling and the armament, finally, with the
age of the metals, copper and tin, indispensable to all the instruments of
bronze, which gradually, replace the lithic tools and give to the one who is
provided a power much greater.
a commercial network, some developed as it has been, could not provide the
inhabitants of Mesopotamia everything that they lacked; also their ingenuity
OTC-it s exercise to draw only the resources of the country the objects the
most varied, absolutely necessary to everyday life: the clay, flood and mixed
with the chopped straw or molded in the shape of a brick, became the raw material
of the architecture; purified and in the form of Tablet, it served to support
the writing; tour and cooked, it served to make, as elsewhere, containers
various, in current use. It may without exaggeration No, say that everyday life
is mold in Mesopotamia in the clay.
growth of the Mesopotamia is thus based on the richness is alluvial soil and on
the quasi-absence of any other raw material. One can never say enough the
extraordinary power of invention of Mesopotamian populations, which, faced in
full Neolithic to the critical problems of survival, have been able to lay the
economic, social and cultural bases of the communities who have dominated and
radiated from the Mesopotamia on all the East and the Mediterranean basin.
and Mesopotamia, these two civilizations have emerged together and shared a
number of aspects, including religious. Yet, each is quite distinct from the
other, we discuss below, some points where are these differences.
first, the geographic orientation of each differs. Ancient Egypt is organized
around the banks of the River Nile. While the Mesopotamia is located between
the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, a situation to which it must,
moreover, its name. While the Egyptian civilization is concentrated on the Nile
and its many benefits, the Mesopotamian civilization is extended on a large
part of Iraq and suffers more rivers and floods.
political organization of the two civilizations constitutes a major difference.
The Mesopotamia is characterized as a collection of separate states while
ancient Egypt is known to be a state well structured and unified under the
power of its pharaohs.
is also a difference in the literary
traditions. Indeed, Egypt would have been able to adopt the alphabet cuneiform
Mesopotamians but has preferred to attaching to create his own, based on the
hieroglyphics. The Mesopotamia as to It is distinguished by the richness of the
Egypt and Mesopotamia have based their economy on agriculture. This tedious
work required of the means more productive at work, I hope thanks to
technological progress. The two companies have used the process of irrigation
by canals and dikes. Stone tools were most commonly used as well as some of the
bronze. Egypt skillfully used simple
machines such as levers and pulleys to build magnificent monuments.
Mesopotamian pottery ease took with the
creation of the wheel, the potter. The
most important innovation was the writing of distinct structures of the two
civilizations. The Mesopotamians preferred the method of the wedge-shaped by
the creation of symbols in the shape of a corner with reeds. Fortunately for
the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, we can interpret the multitude of
hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt.
the insulation, the two civilizations have managed to comply with the basic
structure of the human nature and apply the indicators of a civilization. Where
the specific qualities that make up the classes of Mesopotamians and old