A This technology is further used in the

A large component of the medicinal and pharmaceutical industry revolves around the inhumane use of animals as test subjects for cosmetic products and new innovations of drugs and surgical procedures. The practice of using animals as test subjects in biomedical research dates back to early greek philosophers, however as society has developed an attitude of progressivism the practice has come under severe criticism by animal protection and animal rights activist groups. With the utilization of bioprinting technology researchers are capable of printing realistic human tissues to test new drugs and cosmetic products. One such case is the California based company Organovo which has been creating liver tissue that they use to test the safety and efficacy of drugs designed to counter and treat liver disease. Prior to bioprinting the most common form of testing was on rats, however Keith Murphy, CEO of Organovo states that “People have failures when they look at liver toxicity, because rat models aren’t perfectly predictive,” and with their ventures into the usage of bioprinted skin they’ve been able to get results that are “highly predictive of the true, eventual human impact of those drugs” (Zaleski). Because the test subject contains true human cells, the product is able to be altered in accordance to human reaction and thus guaranteeing the safety and security of the consumer while minimizing the cruel and inhumane torture that animals are subjected to when testing such drugs. This technology is further used in the Canadian company Aspect Biosystems, a company founded at the University of British Columbia, where doctors are seeking to develop a medicinal treatment to combat airway fibrosis, a disease which kills approximately 100 000 citizens  each year in America (McCullough).  Dr. Sam Wadsworth, one of four principals in Aspect Biosystems, as well as a cell biologist at St. Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver,  explains that animal testing, apart from being ethically criticized yields poor results and little progress has been made to progress the treatment. He states “Animal testing has proven to be a poor predictor of how humans will respond to treatment. There are around 200 different ways of curing a mouse from this disease, but none of them have shown any efficacy in humans.” (McCullough). By printing lung airways from a patient and testing the response to drugs, pharmaceutical companies can forgo the morally and ethically challenged stage of using animal test subjects and proceed to human clinical trials with less doubt of its success. Such usage of bioprinting supports the need to further fund and expand this industry as it eradicates cruel animal abuses while promoting the progress and prosperity of innovative pharmaceutical treatments for severe human afflictions.