140445F via GIS (geographical information systems) for the

 140445F  CE 4902A02 – 2017 – Literature Review  1   W.M.S.K.Peiris Department of civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, [email protected] Mr. T.D.C.Pushpakumara Department of civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa.  Abstract: Over the past few decades Sri Lankan tourism has been a story of untapped potential. The responsible parties have been unable to expand the footprint of tourism due to the lack of vision, coordinated planning and strategic commitment to the actions undertaken to accomplish a country’s goal.  Beyond question, the present tourism industry occupies an integral part of the economy of Sri Lanka. As a result, the negative impact of rapid and uncontrolled tourism development has become an inevitable critical issue. Regarding the indicated facts, this paper offers a remarkable aspect of tourism management defining proper land use patterns via GIS (geographical information systems) for the identified tourism destinations in order to develop the tourism industry further on a both sustainable and economical platform. The literature review discusses the capabilities and shortcomings that are possible to encounter, brief description on GIS contribution and also the author’s perspective relating to the future tourism strategic plan. Rooted in a GIS based analysis, the author anticipates to design a general framework to evaluate the proper land use systems as well as an infrastructure in effective transformation towards sustainable tourism in coastal areas along with novel suggestions in conclusion. Keywords: sustainable tourism; tourism management; land use planning; GIS  1. Introduction    Sri Lanka has a fast growing tourism industry and has always been a vast attractive tourist destination over the years. Tourism is the third largest export earner in the economy and contributes about 5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). According to the latest data released by the Sri Lankan Tourism Development Authority (SLTDA) tourist arrivals have reached approximately 2 million which is a growth of 18% over the past couple of years despite of serious setbacks such as the partial closure of the main airport which highly affected immigration, devastating floods in the southern half of the country which obstructed the access to many resort areas and dengue epidemic in the outskirts of the commercial capital Colombo which resulted an adverse international media publicity that had a negative impact on forward bookings. Except the climatic woes came across, since the cessation of the three decades lasted civil war, the clouds of threatening insecurity has been blown away, rapidly elevating the tourism industry. However it has not yet been able to utterly unleash the potential of Sri Lankan tourism. The struggling efforts of SLTDA to develop diverse, unique and quality tourism services and products converting Sri Lanka into the Asia’s foremost tourism destination globally has not yet been quite productive although the current position that SL tourism holds in the world is somewhat satisfactory. Opportunities are not captured enough to increase investment and employment effectively. And the Hence in order to expand tourism, a long term vision and a fruitful mission are required and should be executed not only concerning the economic benefit but also considering the environmental sustainability. This is where sustainable tourism comes on the stage. It dominates an important role in conserving the natural assets while approaching the mentioned objective in transforming the story of untapped potential into a story of utmost success.  140445F  CE 4902A02 – 2017 – Literature Review  2Tourism is in fact the fastest growing industry and the largest industry in the world with an estimated 11.5% of world GDP and employing about 12.5% of the world’s work force, according to the latest studies of UNWTO (U.N.World Tourism Organization). Moreover they believe that tourism can be the key to many global solutions for challenges like climate change, poverty reduction, and waste reduction, preserving nature and moving the world to a more sustainable planet which is unthoughtful of many people involved in the industry. Thus more attention is paid to the concept of sustainable tourism over the past years. (P. Safran, september 2015) Sustainable tourism is defined as an industry which less affects the environment and local culture without exposing the fragile ecosystems to a risk of catastrophy whilst thriving the opportunities to enhance tourism targets. The positive of sustainable tourism is to ensure an optimistic development for local people, tourism companies and tourists themselves as well. In simple words, it is the concept of visiting a place as a tourist and departing the place as it was before without any sort of disturbance. The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) is the global leader promoting sustainable tourism. The progress so far encouraging the concept is quite appreciable and noted in many parts around the world. But it is questionable how far we have contributed to this concept as a country that has been able to draw the World’s attention in tourism. The foundation and the uniqueness of the Sri Lankan travel experience lie in the inherent breath-taking beauty of the nature specially in hill country and the coastline. Not concerning the very fact might lead to disastrous consequences which would put Sri Lankan tourism at stake. Certain areas in the country already experience this harmful impact due to the rapid non eco-friendly projects performed in order to develop tourism. When launching the very concept as an actual mission, there are various conflicts to be dealt with and obstacles to overcome. Among them land issues can be considered as one of the top most affective facets in tourism development. (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991) Land management is an essential factor in tourism development. It is the process of optimal use of land resources ensuring maximum utilization.  Land is needed for tourism infrastructure and facilities and for tourism associated businesses and services. With the increasing tourist arrivals, there is a mounting pressure to manage land use in high tourism potential areas. Thus one should have a broad understanding about the demand for lands in order to unravel the tourism land issue. The overall demand for land can be roughly depicted by considering the land: man ratio. With the growth of population, the land: man ratio has gradually decreased causing a crisis between man and nature. Furthermore it has given rise to deforestation and invasion of conserved land such as natural habitats and sanctuaries threatening the bio-diversity and biological equilibrium. Since land is used for multiple major purposes such as housing, irrigation, agriculture, etc. and there is only a limited amount of lands available it’s rather a hardship to acquire lands for a minor purpose like tourism. Apart from that, lack of land use planning is also partly responsible for the shortage of lands. Land use planning is a widely followed technique mainly to improve the quality life in urban areas which helps to increase overall efficiency of the area. Since resources are limited they have to be used wisely. Therefore land use planning and resource allocation must be applied in tourism management as well. (Dredge, 1999) Since the success of any tourism business is determined by tourism planning, tourism development and research and tourism marketing. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a rapidly expanding field enabling the development of applications that manage and use geographic information in combination with other media. In the tourism industry, GIS is used to provide:  ? A digital map base for printed maps  ? Digital files for Internet mapping  ? Digital files for mobile mapping  ? Attractions map  ? Website with interactive mapping  (Verka JOVANOVI? & Angelina NJEGUŠ, Faculty of Business Information, , Vol 18 (2008), Number 2) GIS technology offers great opportunities for the development of modern  140445F  CE 4902A02 – 2017 – Literature Review  3tourism applications using maps. This technology integrates common database operations such as query with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. The integration of tourism data and GIS data is a big challenge for the tourism industry, today. So using these functions, providing proper land use patterns for tourism industry is a major target of this study.  Finally the main goals of this research can be identified as follows: ? Define land use patterns for tourism management in Sri Lanka ? Identify the Tourism destinations ? Develop a framework to evaluate the proper land use systems for each categories for tourism management  2. Past studies In this study, GIS was used as an integrating system and analysis tool for the assessment and prediction of parcel-based land-use change. It appears that building permits and cadastral data contain timely and valid information on land use changes. They are the major alternatives of data sources for analysing changes. This is particularly important for tourist destinations, as they are often too small to be analysed using traditional land use change analysis techniques. GIS has advantages over traditional methods in integrating different data sources, performing spatial analysis, and mapping the results into land use studies. The Murrells Inlet study shows that the use of GIS in conjunction with building permits and parcel data can provide adequate information on corridor change, land use change, timing, and spatial change. It is admitted that there are some limitations of this study. These limitations are mainly due to the data constraints and parcel properties. Obtaining the status of building permits (already built or not yet built) and improving data quality are critical to deriving the accurate information of parcel-based land-use change. These things about land use planning can be identified from this report. (Jeffery S. Allen)  (Bas Boers, 2005) Was conducted to examine the potential of STIP as a tourism planning approach to address sustainability criteria. By integrating social and natural resource data, STIP aims to plan (spatially identify) infrastructure at sustainable sites rather than planning tourism development along existing transport structures that are not necessarily sustainable. Although the generated maps for two visitor segments are the most sustainable trail development sites, some issues still need to be resolved. First, the reviewed literature shows a lack of understanding of “network morphology” and “network connectivity” in terms of visitor satisfaction in specific and sustainable tourism development in general. Further research on these topics is required to come to sustainable trail networks. Second, there is no statistical technique to analyse visitor preferences simultaneously at a substantial, spatial and temporal coherence level. Consequently, spatial and temporal visitor preferences were not taken into account in the illustrated road networks. The integration of spatialtemporal preferences is a prerequisite for sustainable development of the trail. Third, current GIS do not allow calculation of minimum cost paths while zonal constraints are applied. Therefore, the concept of sustainability could not be fully implemented. However, this “sustainability” constraint may be resolved by adjusting the minimum cost path algorithm. (McAdam, 1999) Given the above limitations and the poor quality and availability of case study data, no conclusions should be drawn regarding the development of sustainable tourism infrastructure in SFR. This does not mean that STIP has no potential as a tourism planning tool. The STIP’s three-phase GIS-based methodology allows (to some extent) the inclusion of sustainability criteria in tourism planning. Provided that identified limitations are overcome, STIP allows visitors to guide them to preferred attraction and service facilities, using routes that: consider the experience needs of visitors; minimizing adverse effects on resources; and were developed in accordance with PA development goals. Thus, a higher level of visitor satisfaction can be achieved and maintained, while developmentrelated costs and benefits can be channelled to the right places. Analysis procedure, using visitor survey data, rendered a ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ visitor segment. Segment specific preferences and associated behaviour served, next to natural resource conditions and managerial objectives, as input for the  140445F  CE 4902A02 – 2017 – Literature Review  4development of carrying capacity and visitor opportunity zones.  Figure 1 : The culture segment’s opportunity network   Figure 2 : The nature segment’s opportunity network  Referring those will give ideas what are the key functions to be identified, how to carry out the GIS analysis and what is the optimum solution which can present to overcome the current situation.  Also another case study on the Land use Pattern of Kanyakumari District- Using GIS concluded how to decide the type of field patterns and an appropriate area for profitable utilization of land cover features which leads to efficient vegetation. Thus the work had been carried out for the land use pattern analysis in Kanyakumari District. The analysis had been carried out with the NDVI classification of the respective study area. As such the entire land use had been visualized with the help of ArcGIS mapping software. Land use is the most observable of all environmental changes and assessment of any changes in ecosystem can be observed through the analysis.  (E.Vinodhini Shanmugapriya1, 2016)  Figure 3 : Flow Chart – GIS implementation  (Yianna Farsari) Has done a literature retrieval on GIS applications in tourism has revealed that most applications are concentrated rather on recreation (resources management and planning for national parks) than tourism. Those having as object tourism are primarily focused on identifying the most suitable location for tourism development. Very little attention, if any, is paid on the management and planning needs of already developed, popular destinations. Moreover, regarding sustainable tourism, applications are rather at the side as a consequence of resources management than the objective of the application. GIS applications related to sustainable tourism are mostly concerned with social participation. There is an apparent lack of integrated systems to support planning and management for sustainable tourism. This lack is even more apparent regarding the sustainable management of mass tourism in popular destinations. So idea of tourism destinations and land patterns using GIS can be identified from this article. 3. Conclusion The GIS-based land use analysis has been applied in a variety of situations in present. The idea is to develop a method using GIS because, GIS can play a role in auditing environmental conditions, examining the relevance of sites for proposed developments, identifying conflicts of Interest and Modelling Relationships. The systematic assessment of environmental impact is often hampered by information deficiencies, but also by tools for integration, manipulation, visualization and analysis of data. So with the help of this GIS applications,  140445F  CE 4902A02 – 2017 – Literature Review  5research trying  propose better land use patterns for tourism management using GIS and its integration with the principles of sustainable development in Sri Lanka.  Acknowledgements The author is grateful to the Department of Civil Engineering University of Moratuwa for giving all facilities to conduct this research and special gratitude to supervisor Mr. T.D.C.Pushpakumara for the patient guidance, support and advises.  Bibliography (n.d.). Bas Boers, M. (2005). SUSTAINABLE TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING: A GIS BASED APPROACH. Stuart Cottrell, Ph.D. Colorado State University, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, +31-651310920 [email protected]: Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Dredge, D. (1999). Destination Place Planning and Design. 26(4): . Annals of Tourism Research, 772-791. E.Vinodhini Shanmugapriya1, S. S. (2016). A Case Study on the Landuse Pattern of Kanyakumari District- Using Gis . IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics (IOSR-JAGG) e-ISSN: 2321–0990, p-ISSN: 2321–0982.Volume 4, Issue 4 Ver. www.iosrjournals.org , 36-41. Jeffery S. Allen, K. S. (n.d.). A GIS-BASED ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION OF LAND-USE CHANGE IN A COASTAL TOURISM DESTINATION AREA. Strom Thurmond Institute Clemson University (U.S.A.) , Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management Clemson University (U.S.A.) . McAdam, D. (1999). The Value and Scope of Geographical Information Systems in Tourism Management. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 77=92. P. Safran, P. (september 2015). Understanding Land Issues and Their Impact. Creative Commons Attribution. Van Nostrand Reinhold, N. Y. (1991). Tourism Planning: An Integrated and Sustainable Development Approach. Verka JOVANOVI?, S. U., & Angelina NJEGUŠ, Faculty of Business Information, . (Vol 18 (2008), Number 2). THE APPLICATION OF GIS AND ITS COMPONENTS IN TOURISM. Yugoslav Journal of Operations Research, 261-272 . Yianna Farsari, P. c. (n.d.). GIS-BASED SUPPORT FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM PLANNING AND POLICY MAKING. Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Regional Analysis Division P.O. Box 1527, 71110, Heraklion, Crete, Greece Tel: +30 2810 391763 E-mail: [email protected]