People who remember days like these is a trigger of flashbulb
memories. People are able to remember what they were doing at the time, where
were they, and what they did for the rest of the day. Recalling flashbulb
memories like these are due to the amount of emotional content. We are able to
remember things that have emotional content better than memories that don’t
hold much emotional content. Since days like this hold emotional content, they
are to be somewhat important to our lives and that is why they are talked
about. Even months after the 9/11 attacks, it was still a lead story on the
news. Hence, why something like this gave us the opportunity to encode through
visual and elaborative imagery, consolidate, and reconsolidate these events
while being discussed.
This injury caused anterograde amnesia. This type of amnesia causes
new information to not be transferred from the short-term to the long-term
store. There may be damage to the hippocampus and areas in the temporal lobe of
the brain. The hippocampus is a critical
component for storing new information into the long-term store and that this
region also links together various pieces to remember these pieces in the form
of one memory. This injury is preventing information from being transferred
into long-term memory. Information that has already been stored in long-term
memory and working memory are unaffected by the injury.
(Grade this question) His experiment involves
participants being shown a 4 by 3 grid of letters and flashed the letters on
the screen for 1/20th of a second. After, they were asked to
remember all 12 letters that were shown to them and to recall what letters they
saw. Participants were only able to remember fewer than half of the letters.
There were two possibilities of explaining these results. The first being that
the participants could not memorize all 12 letters in the allotted time.
Second, the participants were able to encode the letters, but forgot them when
asked to recall what they saw. In order to test these ideas, Sperling explain
to the participants that they would be hearing a tone right after the 1/20th
of a second list of letters presentation. There were three tones that were
used. The high tone was for the top row of letters to be recited, the medium
tone was for the middle row, and the low tone was for the last row of letters
to be recited. Sperling found out that people could have recited whichever row
of letters and recited the same amount of letters if they were to be asked.
Moreover, the participants didn’t have any idea if they were going to be asked
to recall any of the rows, so the researchers concluded that all the letters
could be encoded. However, if the tone was delayed then the task could not be
performed by the participants since the information dissipated from their
sensory memories. Therefore, since the afterimage was the flashlight, the 12
letters that were shown on the screen were visual icons. Since the performance
was poorly conducted with trying to recall all letters, it was due to forgetting.
Iconic memory which is a sensory storage for visualizing information and then
it is looked as an afterimage. The entirety of the image is encoded, but only
stays for a split second before vanishing.
Explicit memory is defined as intentionally regaining experiences
from the past consciously. An example of an implicit memory is remembering your
high school graduation. Implicit memory happens when experiences from the past
become influential on later behavior and performance without any effort or not
being aware. An example would be remembering lyrics from a song and someone
walking by singing that same song and you finishing the lines of that lyric.
This commonsense view of long-term memory not being completely accurate it
because the information that is encoded into the long-term store is forgotten
rather quickly. This idea was demonstrated by Ebbinghaus that displayed that
forgetting occurs shortly after the information is encoded. Afterwards, future
memory loss slows down.
First, memory misattribution causes eyewitness misidentifications.
Second, source memory is something that involves being able to recognize a
person, but misattribute the source of this knowledge. Hence, the eyewitness
might have seen them at the gas station, but not at the crime scene. False
recognition involves a feeling of being familiar about something that didn’t
happen. The eyewitness may feel strong about the identification of my client
because of the eyewitness recognizing my client at an earlier point in time.
Since Janet is doing well in her other classes, she seems to have
very good study skills. It may involve reviewing material and quizzes in a very
quiet environment with very little distraction. State-dependent retrieval
involves information being recalled better when someone is in the same state
when retrieval and encoding occur. A reason for Janet’s good grades is that her
environment and test-taking environment are the same. The issue that this class
has upon her is that is very different from her studying environment. She
should go against state-dependent retrieval by rearranging her environment of
studying to more of a test-taking environment. She should spend time testing
herself in loud areas that have many distractions before the next exam. Three
study strategies for improving her performance on the next exam is to study in
same place at the same time every day days before the upcoming exam which
relates to state-dependent retrieval, relate information to known things and
make mental pictures known as visual imagery encoding, and taking many quizzes
on the material repeatedly.