1. noncommunicable diseases. Some of the chronic infections

What is cancer?

Cancer is a general term for a disease which may affect different parts
of the body. Cancer cells are replicating and they are becoming abnormal cells.
By the time these cells are growing and speading tok the other tissue and
organs This spreading process is called metastasis which is the main property
of cancer. Metastasis is the primary cause of the deaths. Normal cells needs to
transform to form a tumoureos cell. The transformation progresses from a
pre-cancerous lesion to a malignant tumour. They are three different
interaction factor that may affect the human genetics;

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Biological carcinogens: certain bacteria, viruses, and parasites

Physical carcinogens: ionising radiation and ultraviolet

Chemical carcinogens: aflatoxin, components of tobacco smoke

Figure 1: Digital image. (n.d.). Retrieved from


1.1.Risk factors
for cancers


In most cases, alcohol, lack of physical activity and unhealthy diet is
increasing the risk of cancer. These factors are not only causing cancer, they
are also major factors for other noncommunicable diseases.


Some of the chronic infections can be the cause of the cancer. In 2012,
%15 of cancer patients have diagnosed with carcinogenic infections, including;

Helicobacter pylori,

Human papillomavirus (HPV),

Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus,

Epstein-Barr virus,

Some types of HPV increase the risk for liver and cervical
cancer, respectively.

Infection with HIV substantially increases the risk of
cancers such as cervical cancer. (WHO)




Main types of cancer


There are more than one hundred types of cancer
existing in the world. Usually, cancer is nadem after the tissues or organ,
that is affected by the cancer. Additionally, cancers can be described by the
cells type which formed them, like squamous cell, an epithelial cell. They are
5 main groups in this category.




is the most common type of the cancer. This cancer starts with the epithelial
tissues not only outside surfaces of the skin, it may also start with the
inside of organs in the digestive system which these cells are covering inside

are make up about 85 out of every 100 cancers cases (85%) in the UK.”


that begin in different epithelial cell types have specific names:

Squamous cell carcinoma: These
cells are mainly found inside of the epidermis but also they can be found in
the kidneys, bladder, stomach, intestine and lungs.

Adenocarcinoma: Starts within
glandular cells, these cells are produced fluids or mucus in order to tissues
moist. Many of the breast, colon, and prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas.

Transitional cell carcinoma: These
cancer types start in the epithelial tissue which is called transitional
epithelium, or urothelium. It consists of many layers of the epithelial cell.
Bladder, kidney and ureters cancers are transitional cell carcinomas.


Basal cell carcinoma: In the basal layer of the epidermis,
these cells can be found.


1.2.2. Sarcomas


Sarcoma is the cancer type begins in the bone and soft
tissue, including, blood vessels, lymph vessels, lipid, muscle and fibrous
tissue. This cancer can be seen only 1 in every 100 cancer diagnosed in a year.








          Figure 1: Sacroma Tissues




Cancer that is formed in the bone narrow is called
leukaemias. These cancer types are not in solid tumours. Differently in blood
and bone narrow the abnormal white blood cells form up in a large number, and
blocks the normal blood cells. By the result, they are decreasing the amount of
oxygen which is transferred by the cells.

” Because of leukemia is mostly occuring in children,
its only makeup to 3 out of 100 of all cancer cases (3%)”


Lymphomas and myeloma


Lymphoma is the cancer type of the Lymphocytes (T
cells or B cells). The abnormal lymphocytes forms inside of the lymph nodes and
lymph vessels.  These are getting divided
before being mature and they not able to fight with the infection.


“Lymphomas make up about 5 out of every 100 cancer
cases (5%) in the UK.” 

Myeloma is the cancer type that starts in plasma
cells, also known as multiple myeloma and Kahler disease. After plasma cells
are affected, they are no longer produce immunoglobulins, which are fighting
with the infection.

“Myeloma forms only 1 out of every 100 cancer cases
(1%) in the UK.”


Brain and spinal cord cancers


If cancer starts in the cells of the brain and spinal
cord. Brain tumours can be benign
or malignant. Commonly in this type of a tumour builds up from glial cells and
is called glioma. Benign cancer type develops a very slowly unlike the other
types of cancer.

“Brain and spinal cord tumours make up about 3 out of
every 100 cases of cancer (3%) in the UK”


2.      What
is Microbiome


A microbiota is an
“ecological community of microorganisms. These microorganism can be; commensal,
symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms” Lederberg J et al., 2001 which is built up with all multicellular organisms.
Microbiota is crucial for functions of a host
like; immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homoeostasis.
Microbiome is a synonymous term for the microbiota. In description of
microbiome collective genomes of microorganisms which present in an
environmental cavity or microorganism themselves. Nin Hmp working group et
al., 2009


All living
things, from protists to humans, continue their life along with microbial
organisms. Organisms cannot live in an
isolated environment; they are evolved in a complex community. By the time
researchers build up some disciplines and perceptions to microbiomes. These

perform genomic and gene expression analyses of
single cells and even of whole microbial groups in the new trains of of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics

up databases with information about microbiome making it reachable to
researchers across multiple trains

techniques of mathematical analysis to make the
reaseachers be able to find solution to the complex data sets.


of host relationship


is the type of a relationship when an organism takes benefit from another, but
other organism neither gets harm nor benefit.

is the type of a relationship that two living organisms of different species
which live in same environment. They build up a relationship in individual
benefits from the activity of each other. For example,
humans are in a relationship with bacteria, the intestine flora is essential
for efficient digestion.

is type that when organism takes benefit from other organism and the second
organism gets harm.


Defining the Human Microbiome


In order to form a
human microbiome, it needs to have 10-100 trillion symbiotic microbial cells
stationed individually in each person. Mostly these symbiotic microbial cells
are bacteria which is found in the intestine. Turbaugh
PJ et al., 2007. Microbiome studies at worldwide have been started. The aim of
these project is to understand the function of these symbionts (symbiotic
microbial cells) role and their effect on human health. Peterson et al., 2009.
There is a complication about the terminology of human microbiome; it is
between microbiome and microbiota. Microbiota is the taxa related to humans.
Microbiome is the index of the microbes and microbe’s genes. These terms are
mostly using instead of each other meaning. Moreover, metagenomics is using for
defining the characterisation of total DNA but instead nowadays it is commonly
used for the researches of marker genes such as the 16 rRNA gene. All the more in a general sense, in any case, new
discoveries are leading us to interogate the definition human microbiome which
is used for many years. For example; stability and interaction of a human
microbiome, the term of OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) which building up
the microbiota and checking if a man has one microbiome or more than one. Qin
J. et al., 2010


Research on the variation
of the human microbiome begins in 1680 with Antonie
van Leeuwenhoek. He compared his oral and faecal microbiota in order to see how
environment effects the microbiome. van Leeuwenhoek noticed the major
difference between micorbial communities in these two environments. Furthermore
in these two individually samples, there was also a variation in express of
disease and health. Dobell et al., 1920; van Leeuwenhoek A. et al.,
1683. As a consequence, in these
studies, it is shown that the microbiome can be different in the sections of
the body.  Also the history of the
infections can cause a variation.


Evaluation of the humanoid
gene index and. the
variety of the human genome pale in comparing the appraisals of the decent variety
of the human microbiome. For instance, in human intestine microbiome consist of
3.3 million non-redundant genes only which is stated by the Meta-HIT consortium,
Qin J. et al., 2010 as know human genome
consist ?22,000
genes. Consortium IHGS, 2004. So also, the variety among the microbiome of
individuals is tremendous contrasted to genomic diversion. There is approximately 99.9% identicalism in human genome individually
to each other, when compared to their host genome. Wheeler DA et al., 2008,
but it is possible to ha a difference rating around  80-90% from one another according to their
microbiome of their hand or intestine. Fierer N. et al., 2008 These
investigations recommend that utilizing the diverse contained inside the
microbiome will be substantially more useful in customized drug, the
utilization of an individual patient’s genetic data to educate healthcare
experts than endeavors that objective the moderately consistent host genome.


2.3. Dynamic
interactions between human microbes and the environment

In infants, the gastrointestinal (GI)
tract, supplies a brand new environment for a fresh microbial colonization to form.
Actually, the microbiota in the infant relies upon, the process of birth. There
are differences in microbiota within infants delivered via Cesarean section and
normal vaginal delivery. In normal childbirth after twenty minutes, the
microbiota will have similarities with the mother’s vaginal microbiota. In
Cesarean section, interestingly the harbour microbial communities regularly present
on the skin. The progression of microbiota maintains, for a few years,  gastrointestinal (GI) tract of an infant
starts to build up like an adult in the first year of life after birth. In the
case studies, in the initial 2.5 years, phylogenetic decent variety increases
altogether and directly with time. In addition to that the major changes in the
intestinal microbiota have five important points:

Starting and duration a diet of breast milk,

Day 92, processing fever,

Day 134, starting to rice cereal,

Day 161, starting to recipie and table foods,

Antibiotic medicine usage, if had any,

Day 371, starting adult diet.

Every other dietary modification participated
with the muates in gastrointestinal microbiome and its strengthening of suitable
genes. For instance, if the newborn child started to get a full grown-up diet,
qualities in the microbiome related with vitamin biosynthesis and
polysaccharide assimilation will be improved. The connection between the human
microbiome and the enviroment is dynamic, with human organisms streaming
unreservedly onto the surfaces we interface with consistently. Fierer et al.,

It is shown that indirect human
interaction can transfer signature of microbiomes which can differentiate these
communities. For example, by using fingertips PCoA plots, it is possible to
determine which finger is used to press the buttons on the keyboard. It was even
conceivable to interface a man’s hand to the Personal Computer periferals they
use with up to 95% correctness when contrasted with a database of different
hands.. These studies indicate that all of the microbiomes are dynamic and we
are constantly getting transferred between surfaces via different human


2.4. Characterization
of the microbiome using high-throughput technologies

The appearance
of high-throughput (HT) advancements has emphatically affected the clarification
of the metabolic and administrative mechanisms with the microbes. Host associate
to define wellbeign or illness situation in the host.