1. The values in the list should


is used for writing webpages. It’s a scripting language.HTML stands
for Hypertexts Markup Language.

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Hypertext is
a text that works as a link.
Markup Language is
a way of writing your layout information in documents or pages.

An HTML document is a
plain text file that contains text in structured form with an extension .htm or
.html. When any browser opens an HTML file, Browser looks for HTML codes in the
text files and uses them to change layouts, insert images, or create links to navigate
to other pages.
Hence HTML tags can be written in any simple text editor.
We can create our pages using some popular HTML editors, such as notepad, notepad++,
sublime editor, FrontPage or Dreamweaver.

:Contents to Written here



Opens and closes an
HTML document

to provide information about the
document for use primarily by search engines & browsers

<br /> The title of the document

All the content of the pages

    Ordered list
    Unordred bulleted list

the main content of the web pages

2. Cascading
Style Sheets (CSS)

Style Sheets (CSS) is the W3C standard for defining the presentation or
abstraction of documents written in HTML or in  any XML language. Presentation, refers to the
display of document that is displayed to the user, whether on a computer screen,
laptop, a cell phone display, printed on paper, or read by a screen reader in
any device. CSS is a separate language with its own syntax.

of Syntax:

·       Every
statement must include a selector and a declaration. First the selector and
then declaration.

·       The
declaration properties are separated by semicolons.

·       Each
property name followed by a colon and then the value for that property. There
are many different types of values in properties, but any given property can
only take certain specific values as set down in the specification.

·       Sometimes
a property can take a number of values, as in the font-family. The values in
the list should be separated by a comma and a space.

·       As
with HTML, white space can be used to make your style sheet easier to read and

of CSS:

·       Better
downloading speed

·       Makes
better pages accessibility.

·       Less
time for maintaining and modifying the site.

·       Multiple
styles will cascade into one.


3. PHP

is server side scripting system programming language – PHP stands for
“PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor” – Syntax based on Perl, Java, and C.
Very good language for creating dynamic content and Powerful. If you want to
focus on system with dynamic content, this is a one of best to opt.

The Zend Framework

PHP’s Web Framework is a
collection of classes which helps developer to develop a web application. Zend
is most popular PHP framework. It is an open-source MVC framework for
modern web applications. Zend Framework has some loosely coupled components,
that’s why it is referred as “Component Library”. Zend Framework provides any
PHP stack and Zend server to run Zend framework applications.

Zend Studio is an IDE
that includes features to integrate with Zend Framework. It provides MVC view
and code generation. The current Zend framework 3.0 includes new components
such as JSON RPC server, a XML to JSON converter, PSR-7 functionality, and
compatibility with PHP 7.

Zend Framework 2 is an
open source framework for developing web applications and services using PHP
5.3+. Zend Framework 2 uses 100% object oriented code and utilizes most of the
new features of PHP 5.3, namely Namespaces, Lambda Functions and Closures.

Zend Framework 2 evolved
from Zend Framework 1, a successful PHP framework with over 15 million
downloads. Zend Server has a free community version and a commercial version.

Zend Framework Features

Some of the salient
features of Zend Framework is as follows ?

Pure object oriented web application framework
Advanced MVC implementation
Supports multi databases including PostgreSQL, SQLite
Simple cloud API
Session management
Data encryption
Flexible URI Routing
Zend provides RESTful API development support.
Code reusable and easier to maintain.

Why Zend Framework?

What makes the Zend
Framework one of the premier frameworks used by PHP developers is that – it
provides clean and stable code complete with intellectual property rights? It
also makes programming easier. It is fast, easy to learn and convenient
framework. Zend supports strong cryptography tools and password hashing











4. JavaScript

is a widely used web-based programming language that powers the dynamic
behavior on most websites, including this one. In this lesson, you will learn
about data types and built-in methods, essential knowledge for all aspiring
JavaScript developers. When you finish, you’ll know how to write programs that
solve mathematical expressions, compute the length of a word, and generate
random numbers.This lesson covers the building blocks of JavaScript. Make sure
to take notes and pace yourself. This foundation will set you up for
understanding more complex concepts later.

Syntax Overview:

External Scripts:

Script can also be loaded from an external file as

Javascript variables:

Var myname=”Brijesh Kumar Chaurasiya”;

JavaScript Operators and Constructs:

Operators and constructs are similar to C.

User Interaction:

There are three built in methods of doing user
interaction in JavaScript:

·       alert

·       confirm

·       prompt

JavaScript Events:

These are some common events used in javascript-

·       onload
and onunload : When a page is first visit or left

·       onfocus,onblur,onchange:
events pertaining to form elements

·       onsubmit:
when a form is submitted

·       onmouseover,
onmouseout: menu effects


DOM Document Object Model :

It is an essential part to make website more
user-interactive and through which a programming language can manipulate the
contents, structure and look and feel of a website. JavaScript is a scripting
language that connects to DOM in a web browser.

The Document Object:

The document object represents the
HTML document itself. It is at the root of the DOM tree. It also provides us with
a number of methods for searching for other nodes in the document.

Selecting elements:

·       Document.getElementById;

·       document.getElementsByClassName

·       document.getElementsByTagName

DOM Element

·       element.innerHTML
: This property represents the HTML within the element

·       element.textContent:
The plain text within the element


The following code on execution create 4 objects in
the DOM

And the 4 objects can be accessed as given below:






The JavaScipt eval() Function:

The eval() function evaluates or executes an argument.


String- A JavaScript expression, variable statement.




JavaScript closures:

JavaScript variable can belong to local or global
scope. Global variable can made local with closures.

e.g. var add=( function() {

counter =0;

return function() { return counter+=1}





finally the counter value=3


JavaScripts Objects:

The following are the objects we use –

·       Number

Represent s date, integer, floating point
numbers,  Browser automatically converts
number litrals to instances of the number.

Var val= new Numner(number);

·       Boolean
Object :

Always holds the resultant value TRUE/FALSE

Var val=new Boolean(value);

·       String

Let’s you work with a series of characters,it wraps
Javascripts string primitive data type with a number of methods.

Var val= new String(string);

·       Array

Var fruits= new Array(“apple”, “pineapple”,”guava”,

·       Date

New Date();



JSON or JavaScript Object Notation is a lightweight
text-based open standard designed for human-readable data interchange. The JSON
format was originally specified by Douglas Crock ford, and is described in RFC
4627. The official Internet media type for JSON is application/json. The JSON
filename extension is .json. This tutorial will help you understand JSON and
its use within various programming languages such as PHP, PERL, Python, Ruby,
Java, etc.





5.    AJAX
Asynchronous JavaScript and XML:

AJAX is a new technique for creating better, faster
and more interactive web applications with the helpof XML,HTML, CSS and
JavaScript. AJAX uses XHTML for content, CSS for presentation, along with DOM
and JavaScript for dynamic content to display.

Web applications transmit information to and from the server using synchronous
requests. It means you fail out a form, hit submit and get directed to a new
page with information from the server. With AJAX, when you hit submit,  JavaScript will make a request to the server,
interpret the results and update the current screen. In the purest sense, the
user would never know that anything was even submitted to the server.

Benefits of Using AJAX:

·       Making
things fast

·       Look
more user friendly

·       Reducing
the load on server


jQuery :

jQuery is a fast,small and feature rich JavaScript
library. It makes things like HTML document traversal and manipulation, event
handling, animation and AJAX much simpler with an easy to use API that works
across a multitude of browsers.

Why jQuery?

There are lots of other JavaScript frameworks out
there but jQuery seems to be most popular and also the most extensible. Many of
the IT giant on the web use jQuery like Google, Microsoft, IBM and Netflix.



















6.    XML

XML is a markup language similar to HTML. It stands
for Extensible Markup Language and is a W3C recommended specification as a
general purpose markup language. This means, unlike other markup languages, XML
is not predefined so you must define your own tags. The primary purpose of the
language is the sharing of data across different systems, such as the Internet. XML extensible Markup Language:

XML allows you to create your own self descriptive
tags, or language that suits your application. XML carries the data and does
not present it. It is a public standard.


 A DTD is a description of all the elements
that are permitted in any document that you make using that DTD. A DTD defines
the elements in the document and contains the set of permissions by which you
may include certain elements within a given document. In a DTD for a simple
memo, one would expect titles, paragraphs, and subjects, but not glossaries,
tables of contents, numbered lists and the like. A DTD corresponds to the kind
of document a reader or user would expect.

An XML attribute may be included with element declarations. XML
Attributes are name/value pairs that may be associated with the element. XML
attributes may be used to control some characteristics of the element. In the
markup document attributes are used with the following form:

XML elements require both a beginning tag and an ending tag for
all elements that have content. Elements with content may be written as:

Very large
Oak tree

Elements with no content may be expressed as:

In shorthand it may be expressed as:

Elements with no content may be used to display graphics and other
material in the document.



Why we use XML?

We use it because it offers many advantages to us

·       Simplicity

·       Extensibility

·       Interoperability

·       Openness

·       A
core of experienced professionals


A common type of
client/server session is a Web or HTTP session. An HTTP session is initiated by a Web browser
each time you visit a website. While each page visit
constitutes an individual session, the term is often used to describe the
entire time you spend on the website. For example, when you purchase an item on
an ecommerce site, the entire
process may be described as a session, even though you navigated through
several different pages.

Another example of a client/server session is
an email or SMTP session.




XAMPP stands for Cross-Platform (X), Apache (A), MySQL
(M), PHP (P) and Perl (P). It is a simple, lightweight Apache distribution that
makes it extremely easy for developers to create a local web server for testing
purposes. Everything you need to set up a web server – server application
(Apache), database (MySQL), and scripting language (PHP) – is included in a
simple extractable file. XAMPP is also cross-platform, which means it works
equally well on Linux, Mac and Windows. Since most actual web server
deployments use the same components as XAMPP, it makes transitioning from a
local test server to a live server is extremely easy as well.









8.  Web

Web 2.0, a phrase is a cluster term for the new phase
of World Wide Web, which was coined by O?Reilly and Media live International in
2003 and popularized by the first Web 2.0 conference in 2004.

Web 2.0 Characteristics

After emerging of Web 2.0, it is being vastly used
because of its wide range of variety and very attractive features. Descriptive
list of Web 2.0 tools are endless even though we can say that the new
generation of Internet approximately uses its tools.

Web 2.0 Innovations

Ajax, the rich internet application technique has
prompted the development of web-sites that copy personal computer applications
like (M.S. Office package) word processing, the spreadsheet, and slide-show
presentation while some wiki sites replicate many features of PC authoring

Web 2.0 Model

Before the origin of Web 2.0, Web 1.0 was known as a
term ?Web? that was like warehouse of information and static content. Then, as
time passes, with the advancement of technology and software, a huge amount of
data and content became dynamic and returning custom results to users.

The Characteristics and Design of Web 2.0

As the Internet world is changing very swiftly, now
the users look for more than a web site instead of simple text and picture
based website. They want to be more interactive to the world by sharing their
views; they want to show their talents in terms of their new creation to the
global world. For fulfilling these necessities, a new concept was born that
have all-in-one technology in itself and it is called Web 2.0.

Characteristics of simple Web 2.0 Website

Before making any Web 2.0 site, the programmers must
keep in mind the following things, which suits the Web 2.0 technology and the
site runs smoothly on the web.
















9.  Eclipse

Eclipse is an integrated
development environment (IDE) used in computer
programming, and is the most widely used Java IDE.6 It contains a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment. Eclipse is
written mostly in Java and its
primary use is for developing Java applications, but it may also be used to
develop applications in other programming languages via plug-ins, including Ada, ABAP, C, C++, C#, COBOL, D, Fortran, Haskell, JavaScript.
NATURAL, Perl, PHP, Prolog, Python, R, Ruby (including Ruby on Rails framework), Rust, Scala, Clojure, Groovy, Scheme, and Erlang. It can
also be used to develop documents with LaTeX (via
a TeXlipse plug-in) and packages for the software Mathematica. Development environments include the Eclipse Java
development tools (JDT) for Java and Scala, Eclipse CDT for C/C++, and Eclipse
PDT for PHP, among others.











is a lightweight, “write less, do more”, JavaScript library. The
purpose of jQuery is to make it much easier to use JavaScript on your website. jQuery
takes a lot of common tasks that require many lines of JavaScript code to
accomplish, and wraps them into methods that you can call with a single line of
code.jQuery also simplifies a lot of the complicated things from JavaScript,
like AJAX calls and DOM manipulation.

jQuery library contains the following features:

HTML/DOM manipulation
CSS manipulation
HTML event methods
Effects and animations

Tip: In addition,
jQuery has plugins for almost any task out there.

Why jQuery?

are lots of other JavaScript frameworks out there, but jQuery seems to be the
most popular, and also the most extendable.

of the biggest companies on the Web use jQuery, such as:






MySQL is a Relational DataBase Management
System (RDBMS).

RDBMS means R–DB–MS.

– DB stands for
Database, a repository for the information store.

The data in a database is organized into tables, and each table is
organized into rows and columns.

Each row in a table is called a record. A record may contains
several pieces (called fields) of information, and each column in a table is
known as a field.

-MS stands for
Management System, the software that allows you to insert, retrieve, modify, or
delete records.

-R stands for
Relational, indicates a particular kind of DBMS that is good at relating
information stored in one table to information stored in another table by
looking for elements common to each of them. Relational DBMS has the advantage
of efficient storage, and retrieval mechanisms for data, and uses normalization
process during design of RDBMS. Database normalization process is beyond the
scope of this article, and several references are available.

MySQL operates using client/server
architecture in which the server runs on the machine containing the databases
and clients connect to the server over a network. The server operating systems
is usually a Linux (like Redhat 9.0 etc.) or Windows 2000 operating system.
Typically mySQL is supported on Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Red Hat Fedora
Linux, and Debian Linux, and others. As with any other client/server
application, MySQL is a multi-user database system, meaning several users can
access the database simultaneously. Here:

– The server
(MySQL server) listens for client requests coming in over the network and
accesses database contents according to those requests and provides that to the

– Clients are
programs that connect to the database server and issue queries in a
pre-specified format. MySQL is compatible with the standards based SQL (SQL
stands for Structured Query Language) language. The client program may contact
the server programmatically (meaning a program call the server during
execution) or manually. For example, when you are issuing commands over a
telnet session to a MySQL server, you are issuing the requests to the server by
typing commands at your command prompt manually. On the other hand, if you have
input some data (say your credit card information on the Internet towards
purchase of some goods) in a form, and the form is processed by using a server
side program, then the MySQL server is contacted programmatically. This is
often the case in credit card approvals, member subscriptions etc.

Features of MySQL

1. Speed:Ofcourse, the speed at which a server side
program runs depends primarily on the server hardware. Given that the server
hardware is optimal, MySQL runs very fast. It supports clustered servers for
demanding applications.

2. Ease of use:MySQL is a high-performance, relatively
simple database system. From the beginning, MySQL has typically been
configured, monitored, and managed from the command line. However, several
MySQL graphical interfaces are available as described below:

MySQL Administrator: This tool makes it possible for
administrators to set up, evaluate, and tune their MySQL database server. This
is intended as a replacement for mysqladmin.

MySQL Query Browser: Provides database developers and operators
with a graphical database operation interface. It is especially useful for
seeing multiple query plans and result sets in a single user interface.

Configuration Wizard: Administrators can choose from a predefined
list of optimal settings, or create their own.

MySQL System Tray: Provides Windows-based administrators a single
view of their MySQL instance, including the ability to start and stop their
database servers.

3. Cost:MySQL is available free of cost. MySQL  is a
“Open Source” database. MySQL is part of LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL,
PHP / Perl / Python) environemtn, a fast growing open source enterprise
software stack. More and more companies are using LAMP as an alternative to
expensive proprietary software stacks because of its lower cost, reliability,
and documentation.

4.Query Language Support:MySQL understands standards based SQL
(Structured Query Language).

5.Capability :Many clients can connect to the server at
the same time. Clients can use multiple database simultaneously. You can 
access MySQL using several interfaces such as command-line clients, Web

6.Connectivity and security: MySQL is fully networked, and
database can be accessed from anywhere on the Internet, so you can share your
data with  anyone, anywhere. The connectivity could be achieved with
Windows programs by using ODBC drivers. By using the ODBC connector to MySQL,
any ODBC-aware client application (for example, Microsoft Office, report
writers, Visual Basic) can connect to MySQL.

7.Portability: MySQL runs on many varieties of UNIX, as
well as on other non-UNIX systems, such as Windows and OS/2. MySQL runs on
hardware from home PCs to high-end server. MySQL can be installed on Windows
XP, Windows Server 2003, Red Hat Fedora Linux, Debian Linux, and others.

MySQL Tools

1. A SQL server: This is an engine which
provides access to your databases.

2. Client programs for accessing the server:
A program allows you to enter queries directly and view results.

3. A client library for writing your own
programs: You can write your own programs into the client library using C.