• droughts, granaries were built throughout the

• Government and societyYuan dynasty’s government was a mix of Mongolian feudalism and Chinese imperialism. Islam and Christianity was tolerated. Buddhism expanded and the great khans were followers of Tibetan Buddhism. • Culture     The major cultural developments if Yuan dynasty was the advancements of drama and literature and the increased use of the written vernacular(pinyin). The Muslims of the Yuan dynasty introduced Middle Eastern cartography, astronomy, medicine, clothing, and different types of crops and food items in East Asia.              Road and water transportations were improved and organized. To provide against possible droughts, granaries were  built throughout the kingdom. The city of Beijing was rebuilt with new palace grounds that included artificial lakes, hills, mountains, and parks. During the this period, Beijing introduced the Grand Canal of China, which was completely renovated. These commercially oriented improvements encouraged many overland and maritime commerce throughout Asia and facilitated Chinese people direct access with the outside world.     Achievements• ScienceGuo Shoujing (1231 – 1316), a famous scientist of the Yuan Dynasty, compiled a book known as Shoushi Calendar which recorded the periods of a year, similar to the present-day Gregorian calendar. He also inventd many inventions that helped in the astronomical science study and made big contributions to scientific discoveries.• CraftsBlue and white porcelain reached its pinnacle; and teapot was invented. The teapot was also invented in China during the Yuan Dynasty allowing the tea leaves to be steeped easily in boiling water. Huang Dao Po, a master-hand in the cotton textile industry, introduced advanced cotton manufacturing techniques from Hainan province to her hometown Songjiang (within present day Jiangsu Province) and Songjiang soon became the center of the cotton manufacturing industry at that time.• LiteratureMajor developments in theatre and fictional literature during the Yuan period would later set the standard for following eras.    •  PaintingPaintings during Yuan dynasty was dominated by the Four Masters of the Yuan dynasty (Huang Gongwang, Ni Zan, Wang Meng, and Wu Zhen). They were major supporters of “literati painting”, which was believed to tepresent individual understanding of nature and landscape than with the outward representation and immediate visual appeal of an art. • PrintingAlthough movable type printing was invented during the Song Dynasty, it was during this period that the process was first made efficient and truly effective. The credit for this goes to Yuan inventor Wang Zhen, whose improved wooden movable type printing system laid the basis for further perfections in the field.  v Other achievementsPaper currencyMagnetic compassGuns and gunpowderChinese theatre Opera and musicDecimal numbers    Decline               From the 1330s onward, natural disasters, such as  droughts and floods brought starvation and death to the peasants. The Little Ice Age, and similar famines and natural disasters caused panic and suffering to Yuan dynasty people.            In 1331, the bubonic pandemic disease, known as the “Black Plague” that started in Europe, began to shred the kingdom to pieces. The epidemic swept the dynasty. There were also massive famines.             In 1351, people started forming rebellions mainly  the Red Turban Rebellion. The Red Turban rebellion claimed that the bad rule of the Yuan Dynasty caused the catastrophes and sufferings because they lost the sanction of the gods. The state broke up the rebellion but more started emerging.Between 1356 and 1367, the leader of the Red Turban Rebellion, Zhu Yuanzhang, defeated other rival armies. In 1368, he gained control of the capital city of Dadu (present day Beijing) and gained control of . The rulers and the royal families fled toward north.Yuan Dynasty Sights and Tours    Many descendants of the Yuan Mongol people still live in yurts in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia and Mongolia. Favorite tourist activities include visiting the plains to stay overnight in yurts, sightsee, and ride horses.     Beijing tours: Beijing was the capital of  Yuan Dynasty and continued as China’s capital for more than of the next nine centuries     Silk Road tours: The Mongol rulers controlled the Silk Road toward north land route up to Central Asia gave them a major source of wealth. It is still a popular sightseeing for tourists.